An oral exam is routinely performed by the dentist during the course of an
initial comprehensive exam and regular check-ups. An oral cancer exam refers
to the identification and management of diseases pertaining to the
maxillofacial and oral regions.
The soft tissue of the mouth is normally lined with mucosa, which is special
type of skin that should appear smooth in texture and pink in color. Any
alteration of the color or texture of the mucosa may signal the beginning of a
pathologic process. These changes may occur on the face, neck, and areas of
the mouth (e.g., gums, tongue, lips, etc.). The most serious of these
pathologic changes (which may or may not be painful) is oral cancer, but there
are also many other common pathologic problems.
Geographic Tongue – Also known as Benign Migratory Glossitis
or Erythema Migrans, is a condition where the tongue is missing papillae
(small bumps) in different areas, and a map-like appearance can develop. This
condition is usually seen as red well defined areas on or around the sides of
the tongue. The red patches (which can look like an unsightly rash) may come
and go from hours to months at a time and cause increased sensitivity to
Median Palatal Cyst – This cyst is of developmental origin
and is essentially a fluid filled skin sac. It usually appears in the middle
of the palate and may cause substantial discomfort.
Hairy Tongue – An overgrowth of bacteria or a yeast infection
in the mouth which can cause the tongue to appear hairy and black. This
condition is usually a result of poor oral hygiene, chronic or extensive use
of antibiotics, or radiation treatments to the head or neck. It is often also
seen in HIV positive patients and those who are intravenous drug users. Hairy
Tongue may or may not require treatment.
Treatment of Pathological Diseases
In the majority of cases, the pathological changes experienced in the oral
region are uncomfortable and disfiguring, but not life threatening. However,
oral cancer is on the rise (especially among men) and the chances of survival
are around 80% if an immediate diagnosis is made.
Oral cancer is a general term used when referring to any type of cancer
affecting the tongue, jaw, and lower cheek area. Since it is impossible for
the dentist to decisively diagnose a pathological disease without taking a
biopsy sample of the affected area, seeking immediate treatment when changes
are first noticed might be a life and death decision. For less serious
problems, there are several options available, such as:
Antibiotics – In the case of a bacterial infection or
persistent soreness, the dentist may prescribe a dose of antibiotics to
return the mucosa to its natural state. This will alleviate soreness and
Diluted Hydrogen Peroxide – When poor oral hygiene is
causing changes to the soft tissue, the dentist may prescribe a diluted
hydrogen peroxide mouthwash. This will kill more bacteria than regular
mouthwash and improve halitosis (bad breath).
Oral Surgery – If the patient has cysts or abnormal
non-cancerous growths, the dentist may decide to completely remove them.
This can improve comfort levels, alleviate breathing problems, and make
speech substantially easier depending on the location of the cyst.
During the course of a regular check up, the dentist will thoroughly inspect
the soft tissue of the mouth and take serious note of any changes. If there
are cell changes present, the dentist will take a biopsy of the affected area
and send it away to be analyzed by laboratory specialists. When definitive
results are obtained, the dentist can decide on the best course of treatment.
Oral Cancer Screenings
An oral cancer screening is usually performed during a comprehensive or recall
(check-up) exam. Screening is painless and only takes a few minutes. The
dentist or hygienist will use a laser light to assess the soft tissue for cell
changes that might be indicative of oral cancer. If such cell changes are
present, a small biopsy will be taken and sent to a laboratory for review. If
the biopsy indicates that oral cancer is present, an excision (removal) will
generally be performed.
If you are experiencing any pain or symptoms that cause you concern, we
encourage you to contact us today to schedule an appointment.